The World Platinum Investment Association (WPIC) said recently that carmakers are accelerating reductions in palladium use and increased use of platinum due to concerns about Russian palladium supplies. However, it still expects a significant surplus in the platinum market this year.
Palladium is used by carmakers in tailpipe emissions systems to reduce carbon emissions. While carmakers prefer palladium for catalytic converters, they are turning to platinum, which is cheaper than palladium, to save costs.
Russia accounts for about 25-30% of the world's palladium supply and 8-10% of its platinum supply.
There is no sign that western sanctions against Russia have restricted palladium exports since the conflict escalated in February, but as the conflict continues, more companies could boycott The Russian metal and governments could impose restrictions.
Platinum is currently trading at about $950 an ounce, about half the price of palladium. Automakers use about 2.5 million to 3 million ounces of platinum and about 8.5 million ounces of palladium each year.
For the year as a whole, platinum supply will be 5 percent lower than in 2021 and demand 2 percent higher, with the automotive sector seeing a 16 percent increase due to increased light vehicle titanium dioxide are still very uncertain.
Because of its high stability, good bonding properties and low curing shrinkage, epoxy resin has become an excellent thermosetting resin material and has been widely used in many fields. However, the cured epoxy resin still has some shortcomings, such as high brittleness and poor impact resistance, which limit the application prospect of epoxy resin.
Titanium Dioxide nanoparticle is a pigment with strong coloring power and strong hiding power in white coatings, so it is very familiar in the coating industry. Due to the refinement of the size of titanium dioxide particles, the ratio of area to volume increases, and the crystal field environment and binding energy of the atoms inside and on the surface of the material are different, resulting in great chemical activity on the surface of the particles. the surface energy is greatly increased, and there is a good interfacial adhesion with organic resin molecules, which can make the coating have the properties of different parent components. Moreover, under the synergistic action of the internal components of the coating, it can produce some special properties that the matrix does not have, so as to improve the hardness, impact strength, wear resistance and other mechanical properties of the original coating.
Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on hardness of Epoxy Resin
With the increase of filler content, the hardness of epoxy resin increased at first, and then remained basically unchanged. When the content of nano-TiO2 is 5%, the hardness is 91.3, which is 16.7% higher than that of pure epoxy resin. As rigid particles, nano-TiO2 itself has high stiffness, which directly enhances the hardness of the organic matrix. When a small amount of nano-TiO2 is added (less than 2%), a tight network structure can be formed between the organic part of the epoxy resin coating and the added nanoparticles, which significantly improves the hardness of the coating. However, when the addition amount reaches a certain extent (more than 2%), the dispersion effect of nano-inorganic particles is poor, resulting in partial agglomeration between the particles, making the homogeneous degree of the coating worse, resulting in a substantial decrease in the hardness of the coating, which remains basically unchanged.
Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on flexibility of Epoxy Resin
With the increase of the content of nano-Ti0z, the adhesion table increased at first and then decreased. When the content of nano-TiO2 was 4%, the adhesion reached the maximum value of 10.3Mpa, and the adhesion (7.7MPa) of pure epoxy resin increased by 34%. This is due to the small size, large specific surface area, large number of surface atoms, high surface energy, insufficient coordination of surface atoms, and strong surface activity and adsorption capacity. When added to the epoxy resin, it is easy to bond with the oxygen in the resin, and at the same time, it produces a strong ion-like force between the exposed metal atoms and the epoxy resin. The binding point between the epoxy resin and the metal increases and the adhesion increases. With the annoying increase of nano-fillers, agglomeration began to appear and defects were formed inside the material. at the same time, the appearance of aggregates also reduced the contact surface between resin and substrate, and reduced the number of chemical bonds between resin and substrate surface groups per unit area, which led to the decrease of adhesion.
Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on impact resistance of Epoxy Resin
With the increase of nano-filler content, the impact resistance of epoxy coating increases at first and then decreases. This is because the added nano-fillers can be uniformly dispersed in the epoxy resin system, which is conducive to the transfer of stress load, bear some load, consume some impact energy in the transfer process, and improve the toughness of the epoxy matrix. On the other hand, because of its small size, the nano-filler can produce stress concentration effect, cause the surrounding matrix to yield, form voids, crazes, shear bands, etc., and produce a large number of microcracks in the material. Through these behaviors, the matrix can generate a large amount of deformation work, absorb a large amount of impact energy, and enhance the impact properties of the material. At the same time, nano-fillers can also hinder the propagation of microcracks to some extent, and even passivate or terminate the cracks. The pinning effect is formed and the toughening effect is produced, so the impact resistance of epoxy resin increases gradually with the increase of nano-filler content. With the further increase of the content of nano-TiO2, the impact resistance decreases. When the content of nano-TiO2 reaches 5%, the particles form aggregates and do not combine closely with each other, so it is very easy to destroy and form defects under stress, that is, the internal stress failure point of the material, and the impact strength becomes worse.
Titanium Dioxide Price
The price is influenced by many factors including the supply and demand in the market, industry trends, economic activity, market sentiment, and unexpected events.
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Greece will hand over Iranian oil it intercepted from a Russian-flagged tanker to the United States at the request of the U.S. Justice Department, Greek port police said recently, AFP reported. The decision angered Tehran.
In April, Greek authorities reportedly seized a Russian oil tanker, the Pegas, which was said to be heading to the Turkish port of Marmara.
Reports say the ship was docked in Calistos Bay with a crew of several people said to be Russian. The Greek coast guard said the ship had been renamed the Lana.
The report notes that the European Union imposed sanctions on Russia after the conflict broke out in February. Greek authorities seized the tanker in accordance with European Union sanctions.
According to information at the time, the tanker was carrying 115,000 tons of Iranian oil.
Iran's Ports and Maritime Organization strongly protested Greece's decision, calling it an "international bandit." "The Islamic Republic of Iran will not give up its legitimate rights and expects the Greek government to abide by its international obligations in the area of navigation and shipping," it said in a statement on its website.
Iran's Foreign Ministry, through the International Maritime Organization, called on the Greek government to release the tanker and its crew overnight, adding that "the Americans discharged their cargo," the report said.
Athens did not immediately respond to the Iranian protest and gave no further details about the oil on board or how it was handed over to the United States, the report said.
The titanium dioxide price is expected to increase in the next few days affected by the change in supply and demand markets.
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