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Introduction to the types of centrifuges


Centrifuges are divided into industrial centrifuges and experimental centrifuges according to their uses. The latter are further divided into preparative centrifuges and analytical centrifuges according to their functions. Preparative centrifuges are generally used to separate various biological materials, and the amount of separated samples is relatively large. Analytical centrifuges are often used to study the physical and chemical properties of pure biological macromolecules and particles. Generally, they have an optical system, which can monitor the behavior of particles in the centrifugal field and can infer the purity, shape, and molecular weight of substances, and they are all ultracentrifuges. . Here are some preparative centrifuges commonly used in laboratories.


Preparative centrifuges can be divided into ordinary centrifuges, high-speed centrifuges, ultracentrifuges, etc. details are as follows:


1. Ordinary centrifuge

The rotation speed can reach about 6000rpm, the largest RCF is close to 6000g, and the capacity is several tens of milliliters to several liters. The separation form is solid-liquid sedimentation separation, and its rotation speed cannot be strictly controlled. Large particulate matter, such as: cells, etc. Commonly seen in cell culture laboratories.


2. High-speed centrifuge

The rotating speed is 2000-25000rpm, the RCF can reach 89000×g, and the capacity can reach 3L. Generally, there is a refrigeration system to eliminate the heat generated by the friction between the high-speed rotating rotor and the air. The temperature of the centrifugal chamber can be adjusted and maintained at 0 ℃-4℃, the speed temperature, and time can be controlled strictly and accurately, and there are pointer or digital displays. It is usually used for the separation and purification of microbial cells, cell debris, large organelles, ammonium sulfate precipitation, immunoprecipitation, etc., but cannot effectively settle viruses, small organelles, or single molecules. High-speed centrifuges are a common type of centrifuge in laboratories and are generally equipped in molecular laboratories.


3. Ultracentrifuge

The rotation speed can reach 50000-80000rpm, the RCF can reach 510000×g, the centrifugal capacity is from tens of milliliters to 2 liters, and the separation forms are differential sedimentation separation and density gradient zone separation, which need to be strictly balanced (error <0.1g). The main difference from the high-speed centrifuge is the addition of a vacuum system. It is often used to separate subcellular organelles, viruses, nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides. Ultracentrifuges are expensive and generally only equipped in large laboratories or public platforms.

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